Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Mergers and Acquisitions Office Max Office Depot - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that the term merger involves the combination of two companies, which work together for an achievement of one common goal. Basically, the merger is between the same industry as the objectives of the two companies are the same. Although there will be a difference of approaches and methods following by each of them, the result achieved will be industry oriented. Moving towards the acquisition, it is a term defining when a company buys the assets or equities of another and leaving the liabilities. In acquisition, the financial terms are led by both of the companies while in the merger, financed is one company oriented. Both merger and acquisition can take place between public trading companies or private trading companies, involving the access of shares to public and shares which are not registered. Acquiring or merger with a firm requires the high level of negotiations to balance and mutual understanding of the objectives. The study of the me rger of Exxon-Mobil is a merger of giant companies in the oil industry and this has been aimed to enhance the productivity of the two companies. The rate of a merger was high in the US in between 1994 to 2004, which was due to some major factors that are involved in the economy of the company and industry. The basic circumstances of the merger activity include the increasing number of merger particularly because of advancement in technologies, globalization of markets, intense nature of forms and sources to make industries deregulate, dynamic change in financial markets. Following these global trends of mergers, there some industry related trends as well. The oil industry of US is a large sized market and thus, it incorporates many challenges. Two major challenges of this industry are the addition of the future reserves within the country and the price fluctuations in the price of oil. The advantage of a large firm was firstly owned by only a few firms and is now one of the barriers to entry to the industry.
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Role Of A Social Work Practitioner Social Work Essay Interrelationship can be defined as a mutual or reciprocal relation (Oxford University Press, 2012). A theory in social work is a framework for understanding (Thompson, 2000a, p. 22). It provides the practitioner with an understanding of client behaviour and emotions. Where theory enables understanding the client and the situation they are encountering, practice is how the practitioner interprets this knowledge and uses it. It is the process of interviewing, accessing and assisting the client. Thompson (2000a) states the relationship between theory and practice can be seen as a direct parallel with that between thinking and doing (p. 4). Social work practitioners learn theories so they can be more competent and professional in their practice. Without theory and a solid knowledge base, the social work practitioner inadvertently becomes less effective (Thompson, 2000a). Howe states (as cited in Collingwood, Emond, Woodward, 2008) some social work practitioners believe that theory is not required and that the best decisions are based on pragmatism and common sense (p. 72). However, according to Fisher and Somerton (as cited in Collingwood et al., 2008) theory may not be explicitly articulated, and it may not be used well, but there is no such thing as theory-less practice (p. 72). An example of a how theory interrelates with practice is what Connolly and Healy (2011) call mountain-moving theories (p. 28). These are approaches that aim to shift oppressive structures and/or dominant discourses so that we can move towards a more equitable society (Connolly Healy, 2011, p. 28). Social work practitioners are considered to have power and influence, therefore they need a practice that does not discriminate, oppress or show prejudice in terms of sexism, racism, ageism and disablism (Thompson, 2006, p. 40). Anti-oppressive practice is the practice in which a social work practitioner strives to reduce, undermine or eliminate discrimination and oppression (Thompson, 2006). When working with a person with a disability, a social work practitioner must be careful not to oppress the client themselves, therefore social work practitioners follow the principle of minimal intervention (Connolly Healy, 2011, p. 29). They need to use skills that involve empowerment which means b elieving that people are capable of making their own choices and decisions (Connolly Healy, 2011, p. 28). The social work practitioner would use their knowledge, access to resources, and power to enable the client to feel powerful and supported. They would not make decisions for the client but would let them decide for themselves, giving the client the tools necessary to realise their potential (Connolly Healy, 2011, p. 28). By using the right theory in their practice the social work practitioner has enabled the client to feel validated, giving them greater control of their lives, therefore building up their confidence and allowing them to be valued members of society (Connolly Healy, 2011). Connolly and Healy state anti-oppressive practice provides a theoretical explanation, guidance in terms of approach, and techniques for responding to the needs of people (Connolly Healy, 2011, p. 28). According to Thompson a paradigm is a theoretical approach which encompasses a number of related theories (2000, p. 27). Theoretical paradigms play an important role in social work as they guide the practitioner on what may be happening in the clients world. Social work practitioners can choose which approach to take by which paradigm they deem more appropriate to the situation (Thompson, 2000b). They can choose to focus their practice on a particular or singular paradigm or use multiple paradigms, in an eclectic manner (Poulter, 2005). Poulter states eclectic workers argue that not being locked into one particular paradigm frees practitioners to determine what actually works best in practice (2005, p. 1999). Although there are many theoretical paradigms of social work one main one is systems theory. An understanding of systems theory involves looking at the sociological effects of society on the client and how they are being affected by them (Thompson, 2000b). With Bronfenbrenners ecological theory, the social work practitioner takes the clients current environment into account. This theory includes microsystems, mesosystems, ecosystems and macrosystems (Connolly Healy, 2011). It is a valuable theory because it allows the practitioner to look at the whole picture. For example if there was a problem with a child, the social work practitioner would firstly look at the microsystem surrounding them. This includes the childs family, school, peers and neighbourhood which interact daily with them (Santrock, 2011). The social work practitioner would then look at the mesosystems that impact the clients life; this is the relationship between the childs microsystems and how they affect each other (Santrock, 2011). The ecosystem consists of links between a social setting in which the indiv idual does not have an active role (Santrock, 2011, p. 29), examples of this are parents work places and social welfare services. Here, the social work practitioner looks at how the parents work place or hours of work affect the child or how social welfare is influencing the familys life (Payne, 2005). The macrosystem involves the culture in which individuals live (Payne, 2005, p. 29). This is the familys values and beliefs and how this affects the child. By looking at the whole picture the social work practitioner can obtain a true picture of the child and his / her environment. By using a theoretical paradigm the practitioner has managed to fully comprehend the clients situation and what its influences are; now they can use their knowledge of practice to provide assistance to the child and family. As theory and practice are interrelated, it is accurate to say that they shape one another as well. Sheafor and Horejsi determine that, not only is it hard to separate theory and practice but practice is the process of using knowledge and applying theory in order to bring about specific change (2008, p. 46). During the process of time and practice, a practitioners knowledge base develops, changes, and becomes more comprehensive. To help recognise when change is needed, part of the social work practitioners role is to constantly reflect upon what they do and what they think about what they have done (Dominelli, 2004, p. 250). Reflexivity practice is cyclic, and begins with the experience of the task, reviewing what has happened, conceptualising and trying to understand relationships and finishing by predicting what to do next, thus giving the practitioner a new idea of how to proceed next time (Chenoweth McAuliffe, 2012). Reflexivity provides an opportunity to understand the way in w hich the workers personal views and interpretation intersect with practice-in-situation (Harms Connolly, 2011, p. 6). Reflexivity leads to praxis when an ideology is added; this is the process of strengthening our practice and a form of continual growth for the practitioner (Harms Connolly, 2011). During this time theories will also grow and change, leading to a change in practice. As most social work practitioners want to bring about change and help people, they are more inclined to promote social action (Shaefor Horejsi, 2008). Examining social injustices and inequalities in society is just part of the social work practitioners role (Payne, 2005). According to Payne (2005) this has led to the development of perspectives that broaden the range of factors that lead to inequality and injustice (p. 230). Culturally sensitive practice in New Zealand was developed in order to promote perspectives that encompassed MÃâÃ ori value and beliefs. Social work practitioners saw the need to treat MÃâÃ ori within the context of their culture, not the dominant culture of the Pakeha. MÃâÃ ori well-being is viewed as holistic, containing characteristics from the spiritual, mental, physical and extended family (Durie, 1994). Where a psychodynamic theory might work with a Pakeha, the one to one dynamics and required openness of the dialogue, does not encompass the culture of MÃâÃ ori. This led to the development of mÃâÃ ori models like the whare tapa whÃâÃ model, Te Wheke and NgÃâÃ Pou Mana (Durie, 1994). The whare tapa whÃâÃ model was formed from the findings that MÃâÃ ori health was suffering due to the westernised treatment of them while sick (Durie, 1994). The standard dominant Pakeha model of health was not allowing MÃâÃ ori to follow their cu ltural beliefs; therefore a new theory or models were developed to encompass MÃâÃ ori culture. This in turn led to improved practice. Social work practitioners now understand when working with Maori that it is not just the individual that needs to be considered but the collective (Durie, 1994). In conclusion, the interrelationship between theory and practice denotes that they are reliant on one another for the social work practitioner to develop their professional selves. For quality practice, a social work practitioner must have a sound knowledge base of theory and practice. The developments of new perspectives enhance the ability of the social work practitioner to have an ethical practice. Thompson states (as cited in Thompson, 2000a) practice which does not take into account of oppression and discrimination cannot be seen as good practice (p. 10). The use of theoretical paradigms in social work practice provides the practitioner with an understanding of where the client is at in their situation, what they will do to assist the client and how they will do it. Theory shapes practice in the way that what the practitioner learns will affect the way they practice. Similarly how the practice is developed, is based not only on theory but also experience, so this shapes theory i n that it may be modified to suit. The process of reflection helps the practitioners ability to look back on their practice and the theories they have used, allowing them to review their thoughts and feelings. A change in theory and practice has enabled MÃâÃ ori to be treated in a way that is more in line with their culture, making the practitioner more sensitive and well-rounded which leads to an improved practice.
Friday, October 25, 2019
The Powerful Images of A Clean, Well-Lighted Place, By Hemingway :: A Clean Well-Lighted Place Essays
The Powerful Images of Hemingway's A Clean, Well-Lighted Place The main focus of "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" is on the pain of old age suffered by a man that we meet in a cafe late one night. Hemingway contrasts light and dark to show the difference between this man and the young people around him, and uses his deafness as an image of his separation from the rest of the world. Near the end of the story, the author shows us the desperate emptiness of a life near finished without the fruit of its' labor, and the aggravation of the old man's restless mind that cannot find peace. Throughout this story stark images of desperation show the old man's life at a point when he has realized the futility of life and finds himself the lonely object of scorn. The most obvious image used by Hemingway in this story is that of the contrast between light and dark. The cafe is a "Clean, Well-Lighted Place". It is a refuge from the darkness of the night outside. Darkness is a symbol of fear and loneliness. The light symbolizes comfort and the company of others. There is hopelessness in the dark, while the light calms the nerves. Unfortunately for the old man, this light is an artificial one, and its peace is both temporary and incomplete. "... the tables were empty except where the old man sat in the shadow of the leaves of the tree that moved slightly in the wind." Maybe the old man hides in the shadows of the leaves because he recognizes the shortcoming of his refuge. Perhaps he is drawn to the shadows so that the darkness of his own age will not be so visible as it would be in the full force of the electric light. His body is dark with the effects of illness. Even his ears bring him a sort of darkness as they hold out the sounds of the world. The old man's deafness is also a powerful image used in the story. "...the old man liked to sit late because he was deaf and now at night it was quiet and he could feel the difference." Deafness shuts the old man out from the rest of the world. In the day, everything must be a reminder to him of his disconnection from the world. The Powerful Images of A Clean, Well-Lighted Place, By Hemingway :: A Clean Well-Lighted Place Essays The Powerful Images of Hemingway's A Clean, Well-Lighted Place The main focus of "A Clean, Well-Lighted Place" is on the pain of old age suffered by a man that we meet in a cafe late one night. Hemingway contrasts light and dark to show the difference between this man and the young people around him, and uses his deafness as an image of his separation from the rest of the world. Near the end of the story, the author shows us the desperate emptiness of a life near finished without the fruit of its' labor, and the aggravation of the old man's restless mind that cannot find peace. Throughout this story stark images of desperation show the old man's life at a point when he has realized the futility of life and finds himself the lonely object of scorn. The most obvious image used by Hemingway in this story is that of the contrast between light and dark. The cafe is a "Clean, Well-Lighted Place". It is a refuge from the darkness of the night outside. Darkness is a symbol of fear and loneliness. The light symbolizes comfort and the company of others. There is hopelessness in the dark, while the light calms the nerves. Unfortunately for the old man, this light is an artificial one, and its peace is both temporary and incomplete. "... the tables were empty except where the old man sat in the shadow of the leaves of the tree that moved slightly in the wind." Maybe the old man hides in the shadows of the leaves because he recognizes the shortcoming of his refuge. Perhaps he is drawn to the shadows so that the darkness of his own age will not be so visible as it would be in the full force of the electric light. His body is dark with the effects of illness. Even his ears bring him a sort of darkness as they hold out the sounds of the world. The old man's deafness is also a powerful image used in the story. "...the old man liked to sit late because he was deaf and now at night it was quiet and he could feel the difference." Deafness shuts the old man out from the rest of the world. In the day, everything must be a reminder to him of his disconnection from the world.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Hall High/Low Context Communication In this essay IÃ¢â¬â¢d like toÃ express my opinion about HallÃ¢â¬â¢s Context Communication. In general, in today's business relations, it's a small world after all. As more companies turn towards global markets, professionals are finding themselves in foreign locales, wheeling and dealing like never before. However, the key to effective communication between countries is an understanding of each other's culture, especially a working knowledge of how each society conveys meaning.First used by author Edward Hall, the expressions Ã¢â¬Å"high contextÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"low contextÃ¢â¬ are labels denoting inherent cultural differences between societies. High-context and low-context communication refers to how much speakers rely on things other than words to convey meaning. Hall states that in communication, individuals face many more sensory cues than they are able to fully process. In each culture, members have been supplied with specific Ã¢â¬ Å"filtersÃ¢â¬ that allow them to focus only on what society has deemed important.In general, cultures that favor low-context communication will pay more attention to the literal meanings of words than to the context surrounding them. When individuals from high-context and low-context cultures collaborate, there are often difficulties that occur during the exchange of information. These problems can be separated into differences concerning Ã¢â¬Å"directionÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"quantityÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"quality. For example, employees from high-context cultures like China and France share very specific and extensive information with their Ã¢â¬Å"in-group membersÃ¢â¬ (good friends, families, close coworkers, etc). In comparison, low-context cultures like the United States and Germany prefer to limit communication to smaller, more select groups of people, sharing only that information which is necessary. And now IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to speak in detail about the main features of each kind of Context Communication. High-Context CommunicationHall: Ã¢â¬Å"Most of the information is either in the physical context or initialized in the person. Ã¢â¬ * Knowledge is situational, relational * Less is verbally explicit or written or formally expressed * More internalized understandings of what is communicated (ex: Ã¢â¬Å"in-jokesÃ¢â¬ ) * Often used in long term, well-established relationships * Decisions and activities focus around personal face-to-face communication, often around a central, authoritative figure * Strong awareness of who is accepted/belongs vs. outsidersÃ¢â¬ Low Context Communication Hall: Ã¢â¬Å"The mass of information is vested in the explicit code [message]. Ã¢â¬ * Rule oriented * More knowledge is public, external, and accessible. * Shorter duration of communications * Knowledge is transferable * Task-centered. Decisions and activities focus around what needs to be done and the division of responsibilities. To draw the conclusion, once can say tha t communication is everything, so make sure you know not onlyÃ whatÃ to say, but alsoÃ howÃ to say it!
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
The setting of the passage to be analyzed here is that of GulliverÃ¢â¬â¢s voyage to a land of giants. The speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s context here is the basic comic devices of reversal and exaggeration. When the dimensions of things are reversed there is a comic effect. When clowns at the circus ride around in a tiny car the effect is hilarious. In a famous Gary Larsen cartoon a gigantic monster is seen peering into a manÃ¢â¬â¢s car through the wing mirror which reads: Ã¢â¬Å"Things reflected in this mirror may appear to be larger than they are. Ã¢â¬ The comic context employed by the speaker in the following passage, then, is that of a man suddenly turned tiny by circumstances beyond his control. There are, of course, classical antecedents for this type of size reversal. Odysseus in the cave of Cyclops would provide the best example. There are, no doubt, many who would argue that this incident in the Odyssey is not meant as humor. May we not at least wonder, however, if some of HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s audiences didnÃ¢â¬â¢t chuckle when they heard about how the Ã¢â¬Å"subtleÃ¢â¬ Odysseus outwitted the giant? It will be argued in the following that SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s intention throughout Part II as a whole is comic irony, and that the passage to be analyzed typifies the situation in which Gulliver finds himself when surrounded by giants. Starting off, a simple exaggeration introduces the passage: Ã¢â¬Å"The KingÃ¢â¬â¢s palace isÃ¢â¬ ¦ about seven miles roundÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ suggesting the colossal size of the castle, the rooms within are Ã¢â¬Å"two hundred and forty Foot high. Ã¢â¬ Gulliver who is, as we have learned earlier, a proud and dignified man is reduced by his comparatively tiny dimensions to the role of a doll. All of his proud bearing and gentlemanly dignity disappears in a puff of smoke when his Mistress Glumdalclitch holds Gulliver up in her hand to give him a better view of the surroundings. SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of words at the beginning of this passage also provides an ironic effect. Gulliver who is, in fact, a freak in this society reports that when Glumdalclitch is taken out to see the town, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ I was always of the party, carried in my BoxÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ To be Ã¢â¬Å"of the partyÃ¢â¬ suggests social (and physical) equality, but when Swift follows this dignified phrase with the description Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ in my boxÃ¢â¬ the effect is humorous, since Gulliver is revealed as the curiosity and freak that he is by the fact that he travels in a Ã¢â¬Å"boxÃ¢â¬ like a doll. SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s imagery in this passage allowed allows the reader to see other human-like creature from the perspective of a very tiny person. It also demonstrates to the reader once again that Swift loves to engage in the humor of the disgusting and the impolite. When a group of Brobdingnagian beggars presses up against the carriage to view the strange little creature that is our speaker, Gulliver is able to observes the cancer on the breast of a beggar woman Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ full of holes, in two or three of which I could have easily creptÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ and body lice Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ and their snouts with which they rooted like Swine. Ã¢â¬ There is a misogynist quality to this joke. The breast of a woman is presented as disgusting rather than as an inspiration to art and poetry. The idea of crawling into a cancerous lesion on a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s breast is an ugly parody of what men usually think about when they see the naked female breast which is to adore, kiss, or suck it. This type of humor is based on a simple reversal of the usual emotions inspired by an image. The equivalent would be, for example, to provide an image of the Queen of England sitting on a chamber pot rather than her throne. The imagery in the rest of this passage is also unforgettable, especially the wooden legs of a beggar which were Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ each about twenty Foot high. Ã¢â¬ Immediately following these alarming and disgusting images is another liarÃ¢â¬â¢s trick based on the category of emphasis. This is offered in GulliverÃ¢â¬â¢s careful description of his Ã¢â¬Å"Box. Ã¢â¬ Before analyzing this part of the passage in detail a general comment on SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s project in GulliverÃ¢â¬â¢s Travels is required. The speaker mentions many times throughout the tale the phenomenon of Ã¢â¬Å"travelers tailsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"books of voyages. Ã¢â¬ These were supposedly factual accounts of what travelers from Europe had seen on the other side of the world. They were, of course, full of lies and SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s project throughout much of the book is to satirize the lying authors of these books. One well known liarÃ¢â¬â¢s trick is to emphasize the details of some fictional object. This is what Gulliver does with the description of his Ã¢â¬Å"Box. Ã¢â¬ ItsÃ¢â¬â¢ origin is carefully described: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ the Queen ordered a smaller one to be made for meÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ Its design and dimensions are carefully recorded: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ This traveling Closet was an exact Square with a Window in the Middle of three of the SquaresÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å", etc. The important detail of the boxÃ¢â¬â¢s construction which will eventually allow for GulliverÃ¢â¬â¢s salvation by sailors is also carefully noted: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ On the fourth side, which had no windows, two strong staples were fixedÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å", and so on. There is a dual purpose to what we might call the Ã¢â¬Å"liarÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasisÃ¢â¬ lavished on this passage. The first is to satirize the books of travelers tales so popular in SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s days in which exact descriptions of fantastic creatures were given to fool the credulous. The second is to prepare the reader for GulliverÃ¢â¬â¢s eventual escape. This happens in his traveling box which is then conveniently destroyed by the sailors who rescue him so that no substantial evidence of his adventure remains, and the gullible can easily believe the whole story of Gulliver among the Brobdingnags. The comic irony is an effective device in satirizing human folly. The absurdity in the relationship between these two elements is essentially targeted at England (Gulliver), the Wigs, specifically, whereby Swift is attacking his opposition. In the spirit of SwiftÃ¢â¬â¢s famous word play about Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ his good Master BatesÃ¢â¬ , we can rename his fable Ã¢â¬Å"GullibleÃ¢â¬â¢s Travels. Ã¢â¬Å"